The following essays were written by Francis M. Naumann and Gail Stavitsky for the illustrated catalogue Conversion to Modernism -- The Early Work of Man Ray, ISBN 0-8135-3147-0, which accompanied a February 16 - August 3, 2003 exhibition at The Montclair Art Museum. The essays are reprinted with permission of the Montclair Art Museum and without illustrations. If you have questions or comments regarding the essays, or wish to purchase a copy of the catalogue, please contact the Montclair Art Museum directly through either this phone number or web address:



Editor's Note: The chapters of the essay "Conversion to Modernism" by Francis M. Naumann and the essay "Artists and Art Colonies of Ridgefield, New Jersey" by Gail Stavitsky are being published in a series of online printings. As the sections become available, links will be furnished to them.



AFTERWORD: "Artists and Art Colonies of Ridgefield, New Jersey"

by Gail Stavitsky


We took the ferry to the Jersey side and a trolley to the top of the Palisades. It was open country without any houses. We walked up a road for about half a mile and came to a clump of woods. We followed a narrow path for another 10 minutes with silence all around us except for the twittering of a bird now and then, and came out on an open hillside with a panoramic view of a valley. In the foreground, scattered here and there stood a few simple and picturesque little houses with fruit trees in between. To the right, among taller trees, could be seen more substantially built rustic stone houses. It certainly looked like my idea of an artists' colony.

- MAN RAY, Self Portrait


During the 1890s, the hillside community of Ridgefield, New Jersey, emerged as a noteworthy locale for growing numbers of artists, many of whom sought a quiet, bucolic retreat from the noise and crowds of Manhattan. [1] Located atop the Palisades, across the Hudson River from Morningside Heights in New York City, Ridgefield was incorporated as a borough in 1892. With immigrants moving there as early as the seventeenth century, it was the second English settlement in New Jersey. Artists and writers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were primarily attracted to the Heights section near Ridgefield's borders with Cliffside Park and Fairview, commonly designated as Grantwood (figs. 203, 44).[2] As recalled by former longtime resident William Monaghan, this bucolic area was once "fertile with woods and fields and wells and paths of mystery."[3] Along streets named Studio Road, Art Lane, and Sketch Place, creative minds congregated. Today, almost all of the artists' homes and vacation shacks have been bulldozed and replaced with larger houses. Only these street names and a few original homes remain, along with the panoramic vistas, stretching beyond the meadows to the Watchung Mountains.

One of the first artists to settle in this area was the illustrator, portraitist, and genre painter James E. Maxfield (1848-?), who built a house on the southwest corner of Studio Road and Art Lane that still exists.[4] Maxfield's home became the headquarters for the Country Sketch Club, founded by his friend Van Dearing Perrine (1869-1955), which was officially formed in 1897 and flourished from 1898 to 1912. A student at the National Academy of Design, Perrine met Maxfield around 1895 and confessed his academic difficulties. The elder Maxfield suggested that Perrine retreat to Ridgefield in order to practice sketching directly from nature, a practice that was not sponsored by the Academy. In exchange for use of Maxfield's property, Perrine built a rustic bungalow, which served as a dwelling and studio for the two artists. Perrine's biographer Lolita L. W. Flockhart described his initial enthusiastic encounter with Maxfield's Ridgefield property as follows:

When Van first saw this property - a lovely woodland on the slope of a hill above the peaceful Hackensack Valley - patches of dogwood bloom shone among the elms and oaks, not yet in full leaf. For several years he had been cut off by pavements from the earth that he loved, enslaved by artificial city ways .... Now he came back to the pantheism of his childhood .... The loneliness that his soul craved... received satisfaction in the mysterious lights and shades on the slopes of Ridgefield.[5]

Returning to the National Academy School in 1896 with some of his Ridgefield sketches, Perrine kindled the enthusiasm of fellow students; soon on the weekends "a sanguine group were invading the hills and dells of Ridgefield, the nucleus of the Country Sketch Club."[6] Among these friends were the artists Maurice Sterne (1878-1957) and Clem B. Davis, Perrine's city flatmates. In his memoirs, Sterne recalled his camaraderie in Ridgefield with urban realist William Glackens (1870-1938) and the charming watercolorist George Overbury "Pop" Hart (1868-1933), a resident of nearby Coytesville who sang wonderful songs.[7]

Also drawn to the natural beauty of Ridgefield were fellow National Academy students Alfred H. Maurer (1868-1932) and Samuel A. Weiss (1874-?). Others who came to Ridgefield and would become involved with the Country Sketch Club were Albert L. Groll (1866-1952), Edmond Weill (1877-?), Grant Wright (1865-1935), Ernest David Roth (1879-1964), E. Tracey Noe, and George Glenn Newell (1870-1947).[8] One of the club's Ridgefield outings was picturesquely characterized by Perrine's biographer:

Later in the season - on a beautiful June day in 1897 - the group followed Perrine to their choice outdoor sketching field. Cattle browsed in the lush grass, a woods in the background provided grateful shade, and before them stretched a long view over the valley to the misty purple mountains beyond the river.[9]

The club's objectives were defined as the encouragement "of individual work among members and the fostering of an art native to this country."[10] Its membership grew rapidly, and in 1898 its first exhibition was held. The following year's well-received show at the National Academy of Design was organized as a benefit to raise funds for a new clubhouse in Ridgefield. In the foreword for the exhibition catalogue, Edmond Weill articulated the group's desire for a permanent home "where students with limited means and time can paint and study, unrestrained from the drudgery of the classroom." He characterized the current clubhouse as being "situated on the slope of a steep hill, overlooking a most picturesque part of the Hackensack valley, from where the surrounding country stretches out in a broad and beautiful expanse."[11] A reviewer for The Art Collector observed that its members, "working away for a couple of years," had caused the Academy to start "quaking in its very shoes." [12] Contributing nonacademic paintings "as fair and wholesome and sincere as a meadow lit by the sun," the club members offered urban and rural subjects that reflected their dual headquarters in New York City and Ridgefield.[13] Van Dearing Perrine was singled out for the "reckless sincerity [of] his land and sea work" (fig. 204).[14] Perrine eventually became known as the "Thoreau of the Palisades" for his somber, turbulent canvases of massive rock, sky, and water painted between 1902 and 1912.[15]

A turning point in the history of the Country Sketch Club occurred in 1901 with the presentation of a large show of 139 paintings and sketches by twenty-four artists at the Art Institute of Chicago. Among the exhibitors was William Glackens, whose participation has been traced to a visit made by his teacher and colleague Robert Henri (1865-1929) to Ridgefield in 1900. Residing in Fort Lee, New Jersey, Perrine himself did not exhibit and became less involved; his New York City studio was no longer listed as the club's urban headquarters. There was evidently a shift in emphasis from a study group and sketching club closely engaged with Ridgefield's natural scenery to a loose confederation of cosmopolitan, progressive artist-visitors to the area, concerned primarily with exhibitions and social activities. By 1912 the club ceased to exist; many of its members, no longer students, had progressed to positions of influence and travel abroad.[16]

Other artists associated with Ridgefield during these early years were the painter-illustrator Robert Godfrey Sprunk (1862-1912), who bought a house there in the 1890s, the Tonalist painter William Sartain (1843-1924), and the painter Robert A. Carter (1860-?). Van Skyke, illustrator for the old Life magazine, and sculptor Sigurd Neandross (1871-1958) were also residents.[17] The anarchist Emma Goldman (1869-1940) spent time in Ridgefield around 1910, enjoying its beauty and restfulness.[18] Bernard Karfiol (1886-1952), best known for his simplified paintings of classical nudes in interiors or landscape settings, created many of his earlier works in Ridgefield, where he was discovered in 1912 by the art patron Hamilton Easter Field (1873-1922).[19] Residing by the northwest corner of Art Lane and Studio Road until about the mid-twenties, Karfiol later recalled that "Ridgefield in time became quite a lively colony of artists and writers. "[20]


A second and forward-thinking chapter of Ridgefield as a bucolic artists' colony occurred during Man Ray's residence there for approximately three years between late 1912 and the end of 1915. During his first visit, in the fall of 1912, Man Ray was accompanied by his painter friend Samuel Halpert (1884-1930), who had invited him to experience "an art colony on the Jersey side."[21] Man Ray had met the older artist and pioneering modernist at the Ferrer Center, a progressive educational institution in New York, and received encouragement from him to break away from academic influences. He and Halpert decided to share a shack that was among a group of houses in an orchard, rented in the summer to painters. They were attracted to Ridgefield's picturesque views and appreciated the walk through the woods and cold clear water from a local well - regarded by Man Ray as "symbols of an escape from the sordidness of the City. "[22] Thinking of Thoreau, he hoped to liberate himself from the constraints of civilization. Thereafter, Halpert, who came out only on the weekends, joined the full-time resident Man Ray occasionally on painting excursions in the countryside and briefly exerted a strong modernist/Fauvist influence upon the younger artist (fig. 46).[23] The remaining room in the house was soon rented by Halpert's friend Alfred Kreymborg (1883-1966), the vanguard poet, journalist, playwright, and mandolin player who later wrote extensively about the Ridgefield colony in his autobiography Troubadour (1925). Having "never received the benefits of an extended contact with nature," Kreymborg recalled falling in love with "the view of the Jersey meadows, striped and streaked with the Passaic and Hackensack rivers, lazily rolling away to the horizon. "[24]

Man Ray was very pleased with the additional companionship of Kreymborg, believing that the group "might develop into something more than merely an artists' colony; Ridgefield, New Jersey, could become an advanced cultural center embracing all the arts."[25] Man Ray's own aspirations to pursue writing as well as painting were further advanced by the arrival that summer in 1913 of the writer and painter Adon Lacroix (ca. 1888-ca. 1975), the companion of Man Ray's anarchist friend, the poet and sculptor Adolf Wolff (1883-1944).[26] Sharing Man Ray's desire to retreat from the city, Lacroix soon moved in with him, painting and writing prose and free verse in solitude during the day while Man Ray commuted to his work as a commercial artist in New York City. The inaugural issue of a short-lived magazine, The Glebe, appeared in September 1913, with poetry by Wolff and Man Ray's circular design for its title (fig. 62).27 The title chosen was an appropriate synonym for the soil or mother earth, which may have also been intended to reflect their rustic surroundings in Ridgefield.

Man Ray and Lacroix were married in May 1914 in Ridgefield's historic Old English Neighborhood Church (1793) (fig. 96). Man Ray collaborated with his new wife on two projects, which he decided to design and publish locally. Adonism (1914) comprised woodcuts and poems that are replete with landscape imagery, suggesting the artist's immersion in nature as a resident of Ridgefield (fig. 99). Featuring a schematic Ridgefield landscape on its cover, A Book of Divers Writings by Adon Lacroix (January 1915) contained a play and six poems, which were designed, calligraphed, and hand-printed by Man Ray (fig. 132).[28] Excerpts from their writings were published in an article by Kreymborg that appeared in the Morning Telegraph on March 14, 1915. Residing "on the heights of the picturesque town of Ridgefield," Man Ray and Lacroix enjoyed "a glorious view of nature, [which] extends for miles and miles to the north, west, and south, beyond the Hackensack River and the Orange Mountains to Paterson." Less than an hour from New York, they were at "the heart of Nature, with all its solitude, its healthfulness, its inspiration, and its unlimited opportunities for work undisturbed" - a privilege secured by "these two economist dreamers" for "the humble sum of $8 per month. "[29]

Nevertheless, the solitude of Man Ray and Lacroix was pleasantly disrupted by groups of visitors, often on Sundays, including fellow students from the Ferrer Center, such as the artist and musician Manuel Komroff (1890-1974), who rented a nearby property and eventually became better known as a novelist.[30] Also associated with the Ferrer crowd was the visitor Max Eastman (1883-1969), founder and editor of the leftist magazine The Masses. [31] After an introduction by Kreymborg in New York, another regular visitor was the poet Alanson Hartpence (active ca. 1908-1919), who encouraged Charles Daniel (1878-1971), a collector and saloon owner, to open a gallery of modern art, where Man Ray would have his first one-man show in 1915. Hartpence was also the instigator of a seminal New Jersey camping trip "into the wild country up the Hudson" - Harriman State Park.[32] During this three-day excursion, Man Ray declared that he would no longer seek inspiration directly from nature. Instead, he announced that, upon his return to Ridgefield, he would paint a series of "imaginary landscapes" based on his recollection of the scenes and events that had taken place during the course of the trip. Thus, this experience was a pivotal moment in Man Ray's conversion to modernism and to a greater degree of abstraction in his work.

Others who came to the town at that time included the poet Orrick Johns (1887-1946) and his wife, Peggy, who settled in Ridgefield in the. spring of 1915 to write and paint, discussing poetry with their nearest neighbors, Man Ray and Lacroix. There they found "a country refuge from the fads and wartime hysterias that were taking possession of people in Greenwich Village. "[33] Another visitor who established a residence was the poet and writer Robert Carlton Brown (1886-1959). Parties at his lavish stone home, adorned with murals by Komroff, were the colony's chief social attraction, and his home became a gathering place for the original Provincetown Players acting group. His book Let There Be Beer (1932) captured the lively, boisterous spirit of these events, especially at the Old White House Tavern.[34]

During the early fall of 1915, Man Ray received two important visitors. One was the infamous French artist Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), soon to become a leader of the New York Dada movement and an influential, lifelong friend. The other was Walter Arensberg (1878-1954), a prominent collector of modern art, who, along with Kreymborg, had already developed the idea for another collaborative avant-garde magazine venture. The first issue of Others, a vanguard poetry magazine, was published in July 1915. Kreymborg, the manuscript handler, editor, and general manager, rented a shack at Ridgefield again, and the social scene became increasingly lively as pioneering poets affiliated with Others "mingled with anarchists, self-styled nature lovers, and artists taking a break from the city," including Man Ray (fig. 205).[35] Orrick Johns, Mina Loy (1882-1966), Marianne Moore (1887-1972), Maxwell Bodenheim (1893-1954), Robert Alden Sanborn (188?-1962), Conrad Potter Aiken (1889-1973), Mary Carolyn Davies, Horace Holley (1887-1960), and Skipwith Cannell (1887-1957) were among the writers who gathered at Ridgefield on Sundays with picnic lunches and, at times, manuscripts. Having worked mostly in isolation, they appreciated these opportunities to come together and talk shop. Among the first and most significant contributors to Others, and a regular visitor to Ridgefield, was William Carlos Williams (1883-1963), the doctor-poet from nearby Rutherford, New Jersey, whom Kreymborg characterized as "artist, scientist, and madman."[36] Williams frequented Kreymborg's home "to help with the magazine which had saved my life as a writer."[37] In his memoirs, Williams recalled having "arguments over cubism which would fill an afternoon. It seemed daring to omit capitals at the head of each poetic line. Rhyme went by the board. We were, in short, 'rebels."[38] Williams, along with Malcolm Cowley, Johns, and Bodenheim, was part of the magazine's revolving editorship.[39] In 1917 Williams captured the beauty of the local surroundings in the following excerpt from his poem "January Morning":


Who knows the Palisades as I do
knows the river breaks east from them
above the city-but they continue south
- under the sky-to bear a crest of
little peering houses that brighten
with dawn behind the moody
water-loving giants of Manhattan [40]

With the success of Man Ray's exhibition of drawings and paintings at the Daniel Gallery in November 1915 - six paintings were sold to the Chicago-based collector Arthur J. Eddy (1859-1920) - he and Lacroix moved from Ridgefield to New York. As he expressed to his wife, Man Ray desired to be spared a third winter in the country, exclaiming that he had had "enough of this back-to-earth life - no more woodchopping or melting snow for water, for me."[41] Nevertheless, Man Ray had laid the modernist foundations for his future work as he developed the theoretical, formalist basis for his paintings as two-dimensional arrangements. Furthermore, Man Ray's desire, sparked during these years, to work from the imagination paved the way for his increasingly conceptual approach to art making from 1917 onward.


During the 19205 and beyond, another, less cohesive group of artists, writers, and musicians succeeded the circle of Man Ray, Kreymborg, and the Others coterie. Still remaining in Ridgefield in the Sketch Place area were Manuel Komroff, as well as the novelist, radical journalist, and associate editor of The Masses, Floyd Dell (1887-1969), a resident since the First World War. [42] They were joined by the Impressionist painter William Tisch (1879-1972), a commercial artist who often created plein air landscape watercolors "without any distraction" of his hometown, in which he had settled in I925.[43] Tisch's house was built by his close friend the Cubist painter, muralist, and designer Robert J. Martin (I888-I97I).[44] Residing in James Maxfield's former home was the sculptor, architectural decorator, and interior designer Leif Neandross (1896-?), son of the aforementioned Sigurd.[45] Others who were in Ridgefield included several former students of Robert Henri who were associated with the Society of Independent Artists: Powers O'Malley (1870-1946), the prolific plein air landscape painter Walter Farndon (1876-1964), and Charles Duncan (1892,-I952).[46] A frequent visitor to the area, as remembered by Tisch, was the pioneering modernist John Mann (1870-1953), who spent his youth in nearby Weehawken and moved in 1920 to Cliffside Park, a few miles southeast of Ridgefield.[47]

The attractions of Ridgefield remained unchanged for many years: primarily the availability of inexpensive studio space amidst a town replete with farmland and beautiful wooded hillsides but within an easy commute to New York City. Gradually, however, the redevelopment of Ridgefield and proliferation of large homes erased most traces of the bucolic colony, as hills were leveled, cottages and trees bulldozed. A few residents today, especially artists such as landscape painter and book designer Maria Pia Marrella, are, however, aware of the area's illustrious past and summon forth memories as they view the town's panoramic vistas:


You're above the fray. We get great sunsets. I
don't think I could leave because of this
view. You get reminded of what it must
have been like at the turn of the century.[48]


During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Ridgefield, New Jersey, was a surprisingly vital, episodic crucible for new developments in the arts, a rustic retreat where idealists came together to conceive the future social and aesthetic orders. In this quaint hamlet, isolated yet close to New York City, numerous works of art were created in a variety of mediums by Man Ray and many others. These surviving artifacts attest to the Ridgefield colonists' little-known yet critical contributions to the world of literature and the arts, which merit further research.



1. The epigraph is from SP 2d ed., pp. 33-34.

2. For histories of Ridgefield, known originally as the English Neighborhood, see A History of the Borough of Ridgefield (Ridgefield: Ridgefield Exchange Club, 1964); "From a Village in Ridgefield Township to the Borough of Ridgefield," Ridgefield Centennial (Bergen Newspaper Group, 1992), pp-3-31; the entire May 27, 1942, issue of the Bergen Bulletin; and "Early History of Ridgefield Pictured by Historical Society Members," unidentified newspaper clipping dated February 1, 1908, Ridgefield Public Library Archives. For Ridgefield as an artists' colony, see Peter J. Sampson, "Redevelopment Slowly Erasing Shadows of Artists' Colony," Record, June 19, 2000, pp. L1 L6; William H. Gerdts, Painting and Sculpture in New Jersey (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1964), pp. 215-219; Lucy D. Rosenfeld, "3 Towns Where Creative Minds Congregated," New York Times, December 22, 1996, p. 13. William H. Gerdts, Art across America: Two Centuries of Regional Painting, 1710-1920, vol. i (New York: Abbeville, 1990), pp. 258-261; Mel Most, "A Time Long out of Mind: Ridgefield Art Colony in Retrospect," Record, January 21, 1975, pp. A11, A13; Sheila Magee, "Town's Past Art Thrived in Borough," Record, May 16, 1967, pp. C1 C3; and "Ridgefield Home of Many Noted Authors and Artists," Bergen Bulletin, May 27, 1942, p. 14. See also Richard Burdi, "An Art Colony and More," and Lila Locksley, "A Bohemian Heaven on the Palisades," both unidentified newspaper clippings, Ridgefield Public Library Archives.

3. William Monaghan, "Those Were The Days, My Friend, Those Were the Days," typescript, p. 1, Ridgefield Public Library Archives.

4. The author is grateful for information on the little-known Maxfield received from David Dearinger, chief curator, National Academy Design Museum, in an e-mail of August 24, 2001, containing the text for the entry on Maxfield that will appear in the Museum's collection catalogue, to be published in early 2003. See also Who Was Who in American Art, vol. 2 (Madison, Conn.: Soundview Press, 1999), p. 2225. On Maxfield in Ridgefield, see "Ridgefield Home of Many Noted Authors and Artists" and Most, "Time Long out of Mind." Maxfield's home was acquired by the sculptor, architectural decorator, and interior designer Leif Neandross (as discussed later in this essay), who sold it to the current owner, Mike Merse (interview, May 1, 2001).

5. Lolita L. W. Flockhart, A Full Life: The Story of Van Dearing Perrine (Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1939), pp. 77, 101. Flockhart's book provides the most complete account of the Country Sketch Club (pp. 76-88, 94-130, 147, For recent accounts, see Arleen Pancza, "Van Dearing Perrine and the Country Sketch Club," in Van Dearing Perrine: First Decade on the Palisades, 1902-1912 (New York: Graham Gallery, 1986), pp. 12-15, and Gerdts, Art across America, pp. 258-260.

6. Flockhart, Full Life, p. 94.

7. Charlotte Leon Mayerson, ed., Shadow and Light: The Life, Friends, and Opinions of Maurice Sterne (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1952), p. 38. Sterne became best known for his figurative studies on the island of Bali from 1912 to 1915, which show the influence of the work of Gauguin and Cezanne. For Glackens's evidently brief experiences in Ridgefield, see Flockhart, Full Life, p. 137.

8. Flockhart, Full Life, pp. 83, 87, 99, 114-123. See also Who Was Who in American Art, vol. 2, p. 2410, vol. 3, pp. 3499, 3507, 3645.

9. Flockhart, Full Life, p. 106.

10. Quoted in Pancza, "Van Deering Perrine and the Country Sketch Club," p. 12.

11. Quoted in Flockhart, Full Life, p. 115.

12. "The Country Sketch Club," Art Collector 9 (June 1, 1899), p. 230.

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid.

15. John I. H. Baur, "Rediscovery: Van Dearing Perrine," Van Dearing Perrine: First Decade, p. 7.

16. See Pancza, "Van Dearing and the Country Sketch Club," pp. 13-14. Among those who exhibited in the 1901 show at the Art Institute of Chicago were Charles W. Hawthorne, Jonas Lie, Alfred H. Maurer, Ernest David Roth, Paul Goeble, Albert L. Groll, G. Glenn Newell, and Maurice Sterne.

17. See "Ridgefield Home of Many Noted Authors and Artists," Bergen Bulletin, May 27, 1942, p. 14, and A History of the Boreough of Ridgefield, p. [6]. See also Who Was Who in American Art, vol.1, p. 586, vol. 2, pp. 2225, 2394, 2469, vol. 3, pp. 2895, 3132.

18. Emma Goldman, Living My Life (New York: Dover, 1970), p. 471; Most, "Time Long out of Mind"; Monaghan, "Those Were the Days," p. [2].

19. Gerdts, Painting and Sculpture in New Jersey, p. 215; Orrick Johns, Time of Our Lives: The Story of My Father and Myself (New York: Stackpole Sons, 1937), p. 225.

20. Bernard Karfiol, Bernard Karfiol (New York: American Artists Group, 1945), p. [8].

21. SP, zded.,p.33.

22. Ibid, p. 34.

23. On Halpert, see Diane Tepfer, "Edith Gregor Halpert and The Downtown Gallery Downtown, 1926-1940: A Study in American Art Patronage," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1989, p. 25, and Diane Tepfer, Samuel Halpert: A Conservative Modernist, Federal Reserve System, Washington D.C., 1991, pp. 10, 17. I am grateful to Diane Tepfer for an advance copy of her publication Samuel Halpert 1884-1930 Art and Life (New York: Millennium Partners, 2001), p. 9. and plate 7, p. 30 discussion of Interior with Man Ray, 1913-1915. In an e-mail of August 9, 2001, Tepfer stated that Halpert never mentioned Man Ray or Ridgefleld in his writings that are included in her publication (e.g., Halpert's autobiographical letter of November 14, 1915, to John Weichsel). On Halpert's influence in Ridgefleld, see Francis M. Naumann, "Man Ray, 1908-1921: From an Art in Two Dimensions to the Higher Dimension of Ideas," in Merry Foresta et al., Perpetual Motif The Art of Man Ray (New York: Abbeville, 1988), pp. 55-56.

24. Alfred Kreymborg, Troubadour: An American Autobiography (New York: Sagamore Press, 1957), p. 200.

25. SP, 2d ed., p. 35.

26. See Francis M. Naumann and Paul Avrich, "Adolf Wolff, 'Poet, Sculptor, and Revolutionist, but Mostly Revolutionist,' " Art Bulletin 67 (September 1985), pp. 486-500, and Francis M. Naumann, "Man Ray and America: The New York and Ridgefleld Years, 1907-1921," Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, 1988, op cit, pp. 6,8, 17-19.

27. On The Glebe, see Kreymborg, Troubadour, pp. 151-158, and Neil Baldwin, Man Ray: American Artist (New York: Da Capo Press, 1988), pp. 32-35. See also Naumann, "Man Ray and America," pp. 5-6.

28. See Naumann, "Man Ray and America," pp. 10-16, and Baldwin, Man Ray: American Artist, pp. 39-40.

29. Alfred Kreymborg, "Man Ray and Adon La Croix, Economists," Morning Telegraph, March 14, 1915.

30. SP, 2d ed., pp. 43-44, Johns, Time of Our Lives, p. 225, and Naumann, "Man Ray and America," pp. 10-11.

31. Baldwin, Man Ray: American Artist, p. 33; and Man Ray, SP, 2d ed., p. 40.

32. SP, 2d ed., p. 50 and pp. 45, 47-49, 52-53, 55, 56, 69.

33. Johns, Time of Our Lives, p. 224.

34. SP, 2d ed., pp. 48, Robert Canton Brown, Let There Be Beer (New York: Harrison, Smith & Robert Haas, 1932), pp. 189, 195ff. See also William Carlos Williams, The Autobiography of William Carlos Williams (New York: New Directions, 1948), pp. 137-138.

35. Baldwin, Man Ray: American Artist, p. 44.

36. Kreymborg, Troubador, p. 243. See also Man Ray, SP, 2d ed., p. 40, and Neil Baldwin, To All Gentleness: William Carlos Williams, the Doctor Poet (New York: Atheneum, 1984), pp. 78-80.

37. Williams, Autobiography of William Carlos Williams, p. 135.

38. Ibid, p. 136.

39. Naumann, "Man Ray and America," pp. 19-20.

40. A. Walton Litz and Christopher MacGowan, eds., The Collected Poems of William Carlos Williams, vol. I 1909-1939 (New York: New Directions, 1986), pp. 102-103.

41. SP, 2d ed.,p.57.

42. See "Ridgefield Home of Many Noted Authors and Artists"; Gerdts, Painting and Sculpture in New Jersey, p. 218; Most, "Time Long out of Mind"; Monaghan, "Those Were the Days," p. [2]; and Burdi, 'An Art Colony and More," p. 15

43. David S. Heeren, "Ridgefleld Art Colony Recalled In Octogenarian's Reminiscences," and Bill Dalton, "Painter Rich in Memories: Art Was His Life Style," unidentified clippings, Ridgefield Public Library Archives.

44. Burdi, 'An Art Colony and More," p. 15 Edward Tuite, "Octogenarian Artist Enjoys Talking: Tisch, 89, Recalls Ridgefield 'Colony' on the Hill," Hudson Dispatch, November 17, 1970, p. 2; Monaghan, "Those Were the Days," p. 3, also mentions Carol Ruggles, a composer, on p. 7; and Heeren, "Ridgefield Art Colony Recalled," also mentions Anton Rovinsky, pianist, as a resident.

45. Most, "Time Long out of Mind," and "Personality Profile - Leif Neandross," Society News 16 (New York: General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen of the City of New York), January I, 1975, pp. 4-7.

46. Gerdts, Painting and Sculpture in New Jersey, p. 218, and Who Was Who in American Art, vol. 1, pp. 979, 1086.

47. David S. Heeren, "Ridgefield Art Colony Recalled In Octogenarian's Reminiscences." See also Lucy D. Rosenfeld, "3 Towns Where Creative Minds Congregated," p. 13, and John Mann: The Weehawken Sequence (Jersey City: Jersey City Museum, 1985), essay by Robert Ferguson.

48. Sampson, "Redevelopment Slowly Erasing Shadows of Artists' Colony."


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