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Warhola Becomes Warhol - Andy Warhol: Early Work

February 10 - June 10, 2007


(above: Installation views are courtesy of the Williams College Museum of Art)


The Williams College Museum of Art (WCMA) presents Warhola Becomes Warhol - Andy Warhol: Early Work. Drawn from the museum's collection, this exhibition features Andy Warhol's early work-from 1952 through the late 1960s-demonstrating his evolution from commercial artist to Pop icon. Warhola Becomes Warhol contains over 50 works on paper and sculpture, including hand-colored off-set lithographs, blotted-line drawings, and rare artist books. The exhibition includes several rare pieces, including a unique, unbound, original manuscript of "Snow in the Street and Rain in the Sky," 1952. Also on view are several of Warhol's rarely displayed Polaroid portraits of celebrities, including Mick Jagger; working "dummies," or mock-ups, created for Warhol's Interview magazine; and an original collage (1966) that became his iconic cow wallpaper. Several later works, such as Jackie (1964) and Self Portrait (1986) will also be on display, allowing visitors to understand how the techniques that Warhol learned as a commercial artist became the vehicles he later employed to mass produce his artwork and create the Warhol brand. The exhibition will be on view through June 10, 2007. A series of related gallery talks and lectures are listed below.

"We see from Warhol's early commercial work how astute he was and how he constructed an identity for himself that made him a household name," says WCMA Director, Lisa Corrin. "We are grateful to have a major Warhol scholar, Professor Ondine Chavoya, on our faculty. His perspective on the artist will be complemented by those of a graduate student in our art history program, and that of a young artist, Alex Donis, who is coming from Los Angeles for the opening and for a discussion with Professor Chavoya." The discussion will be held on Tuesday, February 27 at 7:00 pm at the museum, following the reception that celebrates the museum's spring exhibitions. All are invited to attend both events.

Corrin also states, "We are so grateful to Williams alumni for their ongoing and generous gifts to our collection, and in this case specifically to Richard Holmes, Class of 1946, who recently gave the balance of his Warhol collection to the museum."

This gift forms the centerpiece of this exhibition. Holmes, who worked for many years as an assistant headmaster and teacher of history and of African Studies at the Brooks School in North Andover, Mass., began collecting early Warhol art and ephemera before it was in vogue to do so. His first gift to WCMA came in 1995, consisting of 262 issues of Interview magazine from 1969 through 1991 and 10 books illustrated by the artist. His second gift of 62 works of art and 117 books were acquired in December of 2005. This collection will also be shown at the Brooks School.

Warhol has been cited as one of the most famous and famously controversial American artists of the second half of the 20th century. His astute eye explored the inventory of American contemporary consumerism in the '50s and '60s, and he wrestled with issues of artistic appropriation and mass production. A child of poor Czech immigrants, Andy Warhola was born and raised in an industrial section of Pittsburgh. In 1949, after formative experiences at Carnegie Tech (Carnegie Mellon), Andy Warhola came to New York to start a career as a commercial artist. In the 11 years that followed, Warhola became Warhol-generating a peculiarly "personalized" portfolio-each piece marking what is now regarded as one of New York's most successful careers in commercial illustration.

Andy Warhol became one of the most recognized American Pop artists of his day. His art, which was characterized by techniques and themes drawn from mass culture, employed the use of pseudo-industrial silkscreen process to create "commercial objects" such as Campbell soup can paintings. Warhol also used this same technique to portray celebrities such as Jackie Kennedy, Elizabeth Taylor, Mick Jagger, and Marilyn Monroe, as well as images of Chairman Mao and, yes, cows.



Gallery Talk: Andy Warhol: Early Work
Curators Lane Koster, Williams/Clark graduate student, Class of 2007, and Vivian Patterson, Curator of the Collection, preview the exhibition.
Wednesday, February 21
4:00 pm
Pop Art Dialogue: "Crumpled Butterflies and Borrowed Words: A Long Overdue Love Letter to Andy"
Join Professor Ondine Chavoya & California-based artist Alex Donis as they discuss the influence of Andy Warhol on Pop art and specifically on Donis's artistic practice.
Tuesday, February 27
7:00 pm
Gallery Talk: Warhol: Early Work
Ondine Chavoya, Assistant Professor of Art
Wednesday, April 11
12:10 pm


Introductory text panel from the exhibition

The man who invented Pop Art, who gave everyone 15 minutes of fame, who startled us with images of Campbell's soup cans and serial portraits of Marilyn, Elvis, and Liz -- Andy Warhol has always been delightfully controversial.

This exhibition brings together a body of work that at once charts Warhol's evolution from commercial illustrator to fine art impresario and also reflects the tremendous variety of his artistic production: painting, film, sculpture, rock music, television, and publishing. While the emphasis of this exhibition is on his early work, examples from the entirety of his career provide a context for understanding the transformative role of one of 20th-century America's most important icons.

Warhol grew up dreaming of stars and eventually became a superstar himself. Born in Pittsburgh, Andrew Warhola came to New York City to work as a commercial artist, ultimately redefining his identity as a fine artist and becoming Warhol. His drawings, books, screen prints, and commercial art seen here -- drawings of cherubs, whole series of portraits devoted to feet, books decorated with an alphabet rendered in his mother Julia Warhola's distinctive calligraphic style -- typify his early art. This is the joyous side of Andy, and, one is tempted to say, the real Warhol, before he adopted the Pop stance of distance and evasiveness. Here we get a taste of his giddy success as a 1950s illustrator; we see him as a person who worked hard and dreamed big. These early works provide a glimpse into the artist we rarely see.

The museum is very grateful to Richard Holmes, Class of 1946, for his generous gift of early Warhol material that forms the centerpiece of this exhibition. Holmes, who worked for many years as an administrator and teacher of history, political science, and African studies at the Brooks School in North Andover, Massachusetts, began collecting Warhol's art and ephemera before it was in vogue to do so. The museum would also like to thank the following individuals and institutions that helped realize this exhibition: Andreas Brown and the Gotham Book Mart in New York City; Michael Keating, Class of 1962; David Loughlin; Lucy Keating, Class of 2008; and Michael McCahill at the Brooks School. This show has been organized by Lane Koster, Graduate Student in the History of Art, Class of 2007, with Vivian Patterson, Curator of Collections.


It is impossible to overestimate the importance of [his] first [ten] years (1949-1959) in New York for Warhol's personal and artistic development: it would be naïve to think that his crucial apprenticeship as a commercial artist - his experiences in the blasé, hypocritical world of advertising, including work for the exclusive Tiffany, I. Miller, and Bonwit Teller - played only a minor role in an unbelievably rapid acceptance by the world of the fine arts establishment of New York, or that all he wanted was to be a star. His paintings and films of the 1960s would be unimaginable without the experiences and insights of the 1950s.
­ Rainer Crone, 1970
Andy took any job he was offered, and everything he did was done professionally and stylishly and on timethe big women's magazines, first McCall's and The Ladies Home Journal, and later Vogue and Harper's Bazaar. A lot of people in the industry began to notice Andy's magazine work. Whatever he illustrated ­ shampoo or bras or jewelry or lipstick or perfume, there was decorative originality about his work that made it eye-catchingAndycould hit the right note unerringly. The childish hearts and flowers and the androgynous pink cherubs that he used were not quite what they seemed to be, there was a slight suggestiveness about them that people in the business recognized and approved. He could kid the product so subtly that he made the client feel witty.
­ Calvin Tomkins, 1970


Wall labels from the exhibition

25 Cats Name Sam and One Blue Pussy, ca. 1954
[written by Charles Lisanby; printed by Semour Berlin]
bound artist's book with 36 pages and 18 plates
offset prints on paper with hand coloring
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
25 Cats Name Sam and One Blue Pussy is one of Warhol's first promotional books from his years as a commercial artist. The drawings reveal the telltale blotted line technique characteristic of his early graphic work. Warhol used such a line to give his drawings a "printed" feel, and many works were later serially reproduced via offset lithography. In this book, each sketch is accompanied by the name "Sam," written, not in the artist's hand, but in the distinctive, whimsical script of Warhol's mother, Julia. Originally from Slovinia, Warhol's mother knew little English and when she would painstakingly copy the text Andy asked her to write, she occasionally dropped letters or made misspellings. "Name" in the book's title is an instance of this kind of accidental elision. Warhol had this book printed and bound and then enlisted friends to help hand color them.
Following 25 Cats Name Sam, Warhol created The Gold Book (ca. 1956), a collection of blotted line drawings of friends, flowers, and shoes, on gold paper (inspired by the gold lacquer work he had seen during a trip to Bangkok). Then Warhol composed In the Bottom of My Garden (ca. 1956) replete with slightly suspect cherubs, followed by Wild Raspberries (ca. 1959), a joke cookbook with Suzie Frankfurt's recipes.
(Courtesy, Andreas Brown, Gotham Book Mart, 1971)
Andy Warhol and Suzie Frankfurt
Wild Raspberries, ca.1959
bound artist's book with 40 pages and 18 plates
offset prints on paper with hand coloring and tissue overlays
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Like all good social art, Wild Raspberries is more than just a series of vivid images, and like all good cookbooks, it offers more than just recipes. This oversized book is impossible to understand apart from the culture that gave rise to it: the world of New York high society in the 1950s. A collaboration among Warhol, interior designer Suzie Frankfurt, and Warhol's mother Julia, Wild Raspberries parodies the lifestyles of the rich and famous by means of outlandish recipes. "Continental dining" was all the rage in the 1950s, and any sophisticate worth her mink was expected to be conversant with European, especially French, food. Cookbooks of the era were often pretentious, and Wild Raspberries spoofs the genre in its call for such rarified ingredients as plover's egg and cock's kidneys. At the same time, the book mocks the author's own pretensions, especially Warhol's penchant for celebrity. Sprinkled throughout the text are references to Cecil Beaton, Princess Grace, and Greta Garbo. The recipes themselves provide an A list of purveyors of food to the social elite: For "piglet," Warhol and Frankfurt recommended sending the chauffeur in his Cadillac to pick up a forty-pound suckling pig at Trader Vic's.
(Courtesy, Professor Darra Goldstein, 2006)
Jackie, 1964
synthetic polymer paint and silkscreen ink on canvas
Partial gift of The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. and museum purchase from the John B. Turner '24 Memorial Fund and Karl E. Weston
Memorial Fund
95.11.1 & 2; 94.15.2 & 1
Warhol's artistic exploration of images of Jacqueline Kennedy began in 1964, one year after the death of her husband, President John F. Kennedy. Jackie was a celebrity in her own right, ubiquitous in the media and beloved by the public. In his series of portraits of Jackie, the artist examines the relationship between public and private life, manipulating famous source images for the First Lady before and after the historic tragedy. The photographic juxtaposition of Jackie smiling and weeping highlights the public nature of this iconic figure's private struggle.
In Jackie, as in many of Warhol's pieces, he appropriates and alters easily recognizable photographs. The source photos are so famous that they are comprehensible even when only vestiges of the originals remain. Images of Jackie at the assassination, funeral, and Vice-President Johnson's swearing-in were shown with such repetition in print and on television that the line between Jackie's mourning and the public's mourning became blurred. The multiplication of Jackie's portraits mimics the media's repetitive, omnipresent use of her images in magazines and comments on the public display of private grief.
(Courtesy, Meredith Sanger-Katz, 2006)
Jackie One (silver), 1966
silkscreen on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Flash - November 22, 1963, 1968
screenprint and teletype on paper
Museum purchase, Karl E. Weston Memorial Fund
Five years after the assassination of President John F, Kennedy, Warhol created Flash ­ November 22, 1963, a series of silkscreens matched with teletype text that narrate the four days between President Kennedy's assassination and his funeral. Through distortion, bold colors, and image layering, Warhol created a suite that not only expresses the collective trauma of the events of those four days, but also comments on the media's manipulation of public opinion.
from A la recherche du shoe perdu, with poems by Ralph Pomeroy, 1955
offset lithographs on paper with hand coloring
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
M.2005.17. A-G and J - O
top row, right to left
In Her Sweet Little Alice Blue Shoes
Shoe Fly Baby
Any One for Shoes?
I Dream of Jeannie with the Light Brown Shoes
Shoe of the Evening, Beautiful Shoe
My Shoe Is Your Shoe
Dial M for Shoe
bottom row, right to left
Uncle Sam Wants Shoe!
When I'm Calling Shoe
See a Shoe and Pick It Up and All Day Long You'll Have Good Luck
Sunset and Evening Shoe
The Autobiography of Alice B. Shoe
Beauty Is Shoe, Shoe Beauty
You Can Lead a Shoe to Water But You Can't Make It Drink
In the 1950s, Warhol's artistic interests included his environment; his jobs: his friends; flowers; butterflies; cats; people, young and old; and shoes, shoes, and more shoes. He produced a series of outrageous and bedazzling images of high-heeled glamour ­ from spikes to boots to mules ­ that have since become some of his most iconic imagery. Although the drawings were designed for advertisements, they were playfully personalized to capture the essence of celebrities' personalities. Evident again is the artist's ability to transform the ordinary into the extraordinary.
(Courtesy, Andreas Brown, Gotham Book Mart, 1971)
Liz, 1965
color silkscreen on paper
Museum purchase, Ruth Sabin Weston Fund
Throughout his printmaking career, Warhol exploited the popular images of superstars such as Marilyn, Jackie, and Liz. For Warhol, Elizabeth Taylor was much more than just a celebrated actress. She was a goddess of the silver screen, and the embodiment of a life of luxury. It was the trinity of mortality, celebrity, and fame which so fascinated him.
As Warhol once said, It would be very glamorous to be reincarnated as a great big ring on Liz Taylor's finger.
There are many versions of Liz, all based on the same photograph but printed in different color combinations on different papers and canvas. The first print version was printed commercially in three colors under the direction of Leo Castelli and signed by Warhol in 1964. This four-color version was screened in the summer of 1965.
Warhol was one of the first artists to use screenprinting. He remarked, In August 1962 I started doing silkscreens. I wanted something stronger that gave more of an assembly line effect. With silkscreening you pick up a photograph, blow it up, transfer it in glue onto silk, and then roll the ink across it so the ink goes through the silk but not through the glue. That way you get the same image, slightly different each time. It was so simple ­ quick and chancy. I was thrilled with it. My first experiments with screens were heads of Troy Donahue and Warren Beatty, and then when Marilyn Monroe happened to die that month, I got the idea to make screens of her beautiful face -- the first Marilyns.
Pop Art
The Pop Art movement was largely a British and American cultural phenomenon of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Pop Art works were characterized by the portrayal of any and all aspects of popular culture that had a powerful impact on contemporary life; its iconography ­ taken from television, comic books, movie magazines, and all forms of advertising ­ was presented emphatically and objectively and by means of the precise commercial techniques used by the media from which the images were initially borrowed.
Pop represented an attempt to return to a more objective universally acceptable form of art after the dominance in both the U.S. and Europe of the highly personal Abstract Expressionist movement. Its effects ­ including its destruction of the boundary between "high" and "low" art ­ have continued to be powerfully felt throughout the visual arts to the present day. [Encyclopedia Britannica]
Andy Warhol's Index Book, 1967
books [pre-publication "dummys"]
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
95.18.9. A & B
In the spring of 1967, Alan Rinzler arrived at the Random House offices with the concept of a book by and/or about Andy Warhol and his friends. With a nervous deep breath, Christopher Cerf agreed to the project, and Rinzler, Cerf, and Random House designer David Paul headed for Warhol's studio, called The Factory, to collect materials and ideas.
Soon after, Warhol arrived at the Random House offices, where his eye happened to fall on several of the Random House Pop-up Experiments. "Those are nice," said Andy. Then and there it was decided to add pop-ups to the book.
When the dummy was finished, David Paul pronounced that "there is conception and organization here." Warhol and friends agreed after a fashion. "Um, but," said Warhol, and several boxes of new materials were produced from the innards of The Factory. "What's to be done now?" asked Cerf. "Have you seen Mozart's opera Cosi Fan Tutti?" answered Billy Name, Warhol's photographer. With this helpful remark ringing in his ears, David Paul accepted the new photographs and began work on a second dummy.
By the time the galleys of the printed matter in the book were reaching the Random House offices, with David Paul now hard at work on dummy number three, the problem of legibility came up. "The book is too easy to read," said Andy in a rare talkative moment. Warhol and friends returned to The Factory, with dummies in hand, and soon solved that problem.
At last the book was ready to go to the offices of Graphics International, who would eventually produce the book in Japan. Meanwhile, Warhol struggled with the finishing touches, including the famous "Nose Job" (for which Christopher Cerf Xeroxed over 1,000 noses before the artist was satisfied). And even as the book was on press, Warhol was adding details. The last addition to the book (and an important one it was!) was the swirl design on the "Notes on Myepic" page. One final time over the proofs ("leave the typos; Andy loves mistakes"), a final revision of the title page, and the book was ready for production.
After a frightening few days while the ship carrying Andy Warhol's Index Book was battered by a Pacific typhoon, copies of the book arrived at the Random House warehouse in November of 1967. It is safe to say that in addition to being a catalogue of the world of Andy Warhol, the Index Book is a work of art, and as far as we know, no two are exactly the same.
(Courtesy, Random House, ca. 1967-68)
Kiss, 1966
silkscreen ink on plexiglas with metal stand
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Warhol was one of the most important and provocative filmmakers in New York during the early 1960s and early 1970s. His influence can still be found in Hollywood mainstream film, which took from his work realism and sexual explicitness, and in experimental film, which reworked his long-take, fixed camera aesthetic. The movie Kiss, 1963, belonged to Warhol's early series of silent, black-and-white films that emphasize stillness and duration.
The screenprint series on plexi was made after the film, with the model being a still from Tod Browning's Dracula, (1931), starring Bela Lugosi and Helen Chandler, and originally rendered as a silkscreen on paper in 1963.
Warhol himself avowed, The best atmosphere I can think of is film, because it's three- dimensional physically and two-dimensional emotionally.
Velvet Underground and Nico, ca.1965-67
poster on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
The Velvet Underground was a New York-based rock band that released four albums at the end of the 1960s and in the early 1970s. The original members were Lou Reed, John Cale, Sterling Morrison, and Maureen Tucker. Their music was based on black rhythm and blues mixed together with experimental modern classic music.
The Velvet Underground (also known as the Velvets) was one of the first rock n' roll bands that went on stage to provoke instead of entertain. Warhol's collaboration with the Velvets from 1965 to 1967 was legendary in music circles and resulted in the album "The Velvet Underground and Nico"-an album which many music critics now consider one of the most important records in popular music history.
Andy Warhol and David Dalton
Aspen, The Magazine in a Box: The FAB Issue, 1966
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
The multimedia magazine ASPEN was conceived by journalist Phyllis Johnson and produced 10 issues between 1961 and 1971, each by a different designer. The Pop Art issue was designed by Warhol and David Dalton. It was comprised of a hinged box designed to imitate a brand-name detergent carton filled with several loose items: The Ten Trip Ticket Book (excerpts from papers presented by the Berkeley Conference on LSD, with texts by Timothy Leary and others); The Underground Movie Flip Book (a small oblong booklet with stills from Andy's movie Kiss and Jack Smith's Buzzards Over Bagdad); a copy of The Plastic Exploding Inevitable (Warhol's illustrated underground newspaper), 12 Paintings from the Powers' Collection (twelve cards in a die cut envelope reproducing works by Warhol, Lichtenstein, Johns, Oldenburg, Rosenquist, and others); the portfolio Music Man, That's Where It's At (a FlexiDisk with texts on rock 'n roll by members of the Velvet Underground); and other sundry ephemeral advertisements.
Andy Warhol's Factory
Portrait of Andy Warhol, ca. 1974
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Self-portraiture was a central theme in Warhol's extensive body of work; and the most recognizable image he produced may have been his own. Warhol became a cultural symbol, and his face is now as familiar as the celebrity and commercial icons he depicted and serialized: Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, and Campbell's Soup.
(Courtesy, Professor C. Ondine Chavoya, 2006)
I look really awful, and I never bother to primp or try to be appealing because I don't want anyone to get involved with me. And that's the truth. I play down my good features and play up the bad ones. So I look awful, and I wear the wrong pants and the wrong shoes, and I come at the wrong time with the wrong friends, and I say the wrong things, and I talk to the wrong person, and then still sometimes somebody gets interested, and I freak out and wonder: What did I do wrong? -- Warhol
Constantin/Vogelmann, (German, 20th century)
Andy Warhol, ca. 1960-1975
black and white photograph
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
In the Bottom of My Garden, 1956
bound artist's book with 40 pages and 21 plates
offset lithograph on paper with hand coloring
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
A Gold Book by Andy Warhol, ca. 1956
[designed by Miss Georgie Duffie]
bound artist's book, with gold boards (first issue); 40 pages and 19 plates
offset lithograph on paper with hand coloring
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Interview Magazine, 1969
[mock-ups for the first and second issues of the magazine]
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
95.18.11 & 12
A Picture Show by the Artist Andy Warhol, 1957
[announcement card for an exhibition based on A Gold Book by Andy Warhol]
print on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Campbell's Soup Can (Beef Consommé), ca. 1962-1964
ink on paper mounted to tin
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Preparatory Sketch for Self Portrait/ Williams College Museum of Art Poster, 1986
magic marker on paper
Estate of the artist
Self Portrait/Williams College Museum of Art Poster, 1986
silkscreen on paper
Anonymous gift
from right to left
Shoe in Bird Cage, ca. 1956
ink and tempera on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Shoe in Ice Tea Glass with Butterfly, 1954-1956
hand colored lithograph on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Andy Warhol is a very young artist who may be said to be addicted rather than dedicated. Currently he is addicted to shoes ­ or, rather, hand-drawn images of them; single, never in pairs, and usually large enough to fit circus giants of both sexes. Naively outlined in strict profile and then, as it were, smothered in gold-leaf and decorative commercial-cutouts in gold (tassels, cupids, conventional borders), they have an odd elegance of pure craziness. If one doubted they were fetishes, his doubt would be dispelled by noticing that an evening slipper is inscribed to Julie Andrews and a boot to James Dean.
(Art News, December 1956)
Campbell's Soup Can, BEEF (with Vegetables and Barley), ca. 1962
color silkscreen with silver and gold on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Campbell's Soup Can, CONSOMME (Beef), ca. 1962
color silkscreen with silver and gold on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
New York City Summer Dance Festival, ca. 1954-56
pen and ink wash on paper with pencil and ballpoint
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Dancing Couple, ca. 1955
offset lithograph on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Flowers, ca. 1965-1967
color silkscreen on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Yellow Cow, 1966
color silkscreen on paper
Gift of Terryl and Louis Lawrence in honor of Michael Best, Class of 1987
Paris Review, ca. 1960's
color silkscreen on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Leg, 1956
Shoe, 1956
offset lithographs on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
M.2005.17.16. A & B
Goldenslipper Show or Shoes Shoe in America, Bodley Gallery December 3-22, 1956
gold ink on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Painted Stocking, ca. 1954-1956
ink wash and tempera on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Bus Driver, Boy Driving Truck, ca. 1955
print on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Happy G Garbo Day, no date
transfer print on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Warhol first experimented with a blotted line while a college student at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. He continued to develop this technique in his commercial work in New York City throughout the 1950s. It allowed him to create a variety of illustrations along a similar theme, bring multiple ideas to clients, and increase the odds that one of his creations would be chosen for a final published advertisement.
The blotted line technique combines drawing with very basic printmaking. Warhol began by copying a line drawing on a piece of non-absorbent paper, such as tracing paper. Next he hinged this piece of paper to a second sheet of more absorbent paper by taping the edges together on one side. Then, with an old fountain pen, Warhol inked over a small section of the drawn lines and then transferred the ink onto the second sheet by folding along the hinge and lightly pressing or "blotting" the two papers together. Larger drawings were made in sections.
Studies for a Boy Book by Andy Warhol, Bodley Gallery & Bookshop 223 East 60, Feb 14, ca. 1956
lithograph on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Ralph P, 1955
ballpoint pen on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Happy Bug Day, 1954
offset lithograph on paper with hand coloring
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Andy Warhol and Nathan Gluck
Wrapping Paper (red, black and blue), ca. 1959
lithograph on paper with hand coloring
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Two Cupids Embracing, 1955
ink and watercolor on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Andy Warhol (American, 1929-1987)
To Shoe or Not to Shoe (from A la recherche du shoe perdue with poems by Ralph Pomeroy), 1955
offset lithograph on paper with hand coloring
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Madame Rubinstein in Kyoto, Japan, ca. 1956
ink with white highlights on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Flower, ca. 1957
offset lithograph on paper with hand coloring
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
6 Panels from a Dance Book: Merry Christmas, Cherubs "Fowler Merry Christmas", ca. 1954-1956
ink drawings on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Andy Warhol's Index (Book), published in 1967
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
M.J. by A.W., July 26 - 72 July 26, 1972
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Mick Jagger No.6 (gold/silver/blue), 1975
color silkscreen on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Portrait of Mick Jagger, ca. 1972
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Andy Warhol and Ralph T. Ward
Love Is A Pink Cake, 1953
portfolio of 25 unbound pages with labeled wrappers
offset lithograph and blotted ink line drawings on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Andy Warhol and Ralph T. Ward
There Was Snow in the Street and Rain in the Sky, 1952
portfolio of 18 unbound pages with original blotted ink line drawings and pencil captions on paper; [Warhol's original manuscript/art work for a book that was never published]
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Flowers, ca. 1966-67
color silkscreen on paper
Gift of Tennyson and Fern Schad, Class of 1952
Yellow Cow, 1966
color silkscreen on paper
Gift of Terryl and Louis Lawrence in honor of Michael Best, Class of 1987
Andy Warhol and Ralph T. Ward
A Is An Alphabet, 1953
portfolio of 26 unbound pages with labeled wrappers
blotted ink line drawings and offset lithograph on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Musee D'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, December 16, 1970-January 14, 1971, 1970
poster on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
M.2005.17.7 & 8
Andy Warhol, Tate Gallery, February 17-March 28, 1971, 1971
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Happy Bug Day, 1954
offset lithograph on paper with hand coloring
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946
Kiss, 1963
black and white silent film; this production features 13 kisses with running times that ran from 2:45 to 2:55 min., for a total running time of 34:12 min.
Empire, 1964
black and white silent film; filmed at night from the 41st floor of the Time-Life Building; total running time of 60 min.
(Courtesy, rarovideo.com]
Andy Warhol -- A Documentary Film, 2006
Rick Burns, director
(Courtesy, PBS and PBS Home Video and Steeplechase Films, Inc.)
ink stamp on paper
Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946


Cow Wallpaper (original mock-up), ca. 1966
paper collage
Gift of Ricahrd F. Holmes, Class of 1946
From his first big commission to his final self-portrait, Warhol would invariably return to the concept of the serial image. At times a critique of the increasing commercialization and standardization of American culture, Warhol's use of the serial image can also be understood as representing his particular way of thinking about and engaging with the visual. By the time Cow was unveiled in 1966 at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York, it seems that what once might have been a sly cultural critique in the endless assault of soup can after soup can in 1962 had now become a compulsory act -- a method and a mindset.
Cow was not intended as a framed work of art: the image originally appeared as wallpaper. This showed Warhol's denial of the emphasis placed on original design in fine art and of traditional approaches to displaying art in museums and galleries.


(above: Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987), 25 Cats Names Sam and One Blue Pussy, 1954, Bound artists' book with 36 plates (including cover), litho offset and hand-coloring. Written by Charles Lisanby and printed by Seymour Berlin. Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946. Williams College Museum of Art. © 2007 Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts / ARS, New York)


(above: Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987), My Shoe is Your Shoe (from "A la recherche due shoe perdue" with poems by Ralph Pomeroy), 1955, hand colored off-set lithograph. Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946 M.2005.17.31.L. Williams College Museum of Art. © 2007 Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts / ARS, New York)


(above: Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987), Suzie Frankfurt (American, 1931-2005), Wild Raspberries, New York, 1959, Bound artists' book with 40 page and 18 plates, litho offset and hand-coloring with tissue overlays. Gift of Richard F. Holmes, Class of 1946 95.18.8. Williams College Museum of Art. © 2007 Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts / ARS, New York)

Editor's note:

Resource Library contains approximately 200 Resource Library articles and essays citing Andy Warhol, including:

See from other websites, an essay on the artist by Lynne Cooke provided by the Dia Art Foundation, and

TFAO's Topics in American Representational Art provides resources on the Pop Art movement.

TFAO also suggests these DVD or VHS videos:

Andy Warhol is a 77 minute 1987 video which was the first major profile of the American Pop-Art cult leader since his death in 1987. It covers Warhol's life and work through interviews, film clips and conversations with members of his family and his "superstar" friends. Featured are conversations with a dozen of his closest associates -- including Ondlne, Viva, John Giorno, Brlgid Berlin and others -- discussing his family, colleagues, the art world, and his impact on society.The video was produced by RM Arts; London Weekend Television.

Andy Warhol: A Documentary (from American Masters). PBS says about this 240 minutes 2006 PBS Home Video DVD filmed in 16 x 9 aspect ratio: "Winner of the Peabody Award! No artist in the second half of the 20th century was more famous, or misunderstood, than Andy Warhol. This film explores his astonishing output from the late 1940s to his death in 1987. Obsessed with the desire to transcend his origins, Warhol grasped the realities of modern society and became the high priest of one of the most radical experiments in American culture, penetrating the barrier between art and commerce."

Andy Warhol: Life And Death is contained on two DVD discs totaling 81 minues. PBS says of this 2004 video: "Brilliant, complex artist, eccentric individual, tragic commercial and critical success. The mysterious Andy Warhol was all these, and more. But how much else was there to know? Life and Death probes the surreal man behind the surface, and the blurred reality he perceived, in a fascinating documentary style, part whispered fiction, part spoken opera, all reality,"

Andy Warhol: The Complete Picture was released in 2003 and is a 105 minute documentary on 2 tapes from Bfs Entertainment. Directed by Chris Rodley. Warhol was just as famous for being "Andy Warhol" as he was for his artwork. He was a celebrity's celebrity, yet he was also a shy, prolific artist who worked in everything from painting to film to music. This documentary provides a definitive look at Warhol's life and his creative process. Features rare audiotapes and films from the Warhol Foundation Archives in addition to interviews with Debbie Harry, Dennis Hopper and more. "Exhilaratingly thorough, a Complete Oxford English Dictionary of Warhol" (The Times). DVD :includes a Warhol chronology, filmography and more.

Biography: Andy Warhol. This video covers Pop artist Andy Warhol's life and work, from his paintings based on comic strips and photos of public personalities to his painted replicas of Campbell's Soup cans. 50 minutes. (quote courtesy Plains Art Msueum)

Superstar - The Life & Times of Andy Warhol is an 87 minute 1991 documentary directed by Chuck Workman from Marylin Lewis Entertainment, released through Winstar Home Entertainment. A documentary about the painter Andy Warhol which traces his life from Pittsburgh schoolboy to pop art legend. The film includes a behind the scenes look at "Factory" life and several enigmatic interviews given by Warhol over the years, as well as an array of images from Warhol's art and films.

Warhol is a 79 minute video which offers a profile of Andy Warhol's life and work examines a career that spanned painting, film, publishing, rock music, and television.

TFAO does not maintain a lending library of videos or sell videos. Click here for information on how to borrow or purchase copies of VHS videos and DVDs listed in TFAO's Videos -DVD/VHS, an authoritative guide to videos in VHS and DVD format


Links to sources of information outside of our web site are provided only as referrals for your further consideration. Please use due diligence in judging the quality of information contained in these and all other web sites. Information from linked sources may be inaccurate or out of date. TFAO neither recommends or endorses these referenced organizations. Although TFAO includes links to other web sites, it takes no responsibility for the content or information contained on those other sites, nor exerts any editorial or other control over them. For more information on evaluating web pages see TFAO's General Resources section in Online Resources for Collectors and Students of Art History. Individual pages in this catalogue will be amended as TFAO adds content, corrects errors and reorganizes sections for improved readability.

Read more articles and essays concerning this institutional source by visiting the sub-index page for the Williams College Museum of Art in Resource Library.

Visit the Table of Contents for Resource Library for thousands of articles and essays on American art.

Copyright 2007 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc., an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.