(above: Bror Julius Nordfeldt, The
Art Student, 1921, block print, Shadowland by E.V. Brewster
Publications Inc., Internet Archive. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons*)
About the project
A special TFAO emphasis
is building an archive of material, authored by scholars and other informed
individuals, beneficial for the study of art history in the United States.
As a public service, without charge to readers, TFAO annually publishes
a number of scholarly texts relating to American
representational art in its publication Resource
Long term goals of TFAO are to encourage owners of catalogue
texts to provide free public access to them on their web sites and for TFAO
to provide access on its web site to texts from rare exhibition catalogues
and others not easily available elsewhere.
The Collections-Centric Scholarly Texts Project matches
the geographic location of an independent contractor with a collection of
books related to American representational art.
Potential contractors may live in close proximity to significant
collections of exhibition catalogues. The books may be in the hands of private
collectors, a museum library, university library or other local source.
Contractors would be able to study the actual catalogues to quickly determine
if they have desirable attributes for further consideration.
This project compliments the ongoing American Art Review Study Project by identifying texts for potential online publishing that are
not likely to be identified through that project. It also enables independent
contractors qualified to provide service in instances where the necessary
American Art Review volumes are not available to them.
TFAO welcomes other organizations to use the procedures
developed for this project to add scholarly texts to their own Web sites.
Note: This project is not currently active.
(above: Elizabeth Nourse (1859-1938),
Mère et Bébé, c. 1912, oil on canvas, Dixon
Gallery and Gardens. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)
Texts of interest to TFAO include:
- in-depth biographies of artists not yet published online.
A reference source for online postings is TFAO's Distinguished
Artists, a national registry of historic artists.
- historical and thematic surveys not previously published
online. A reference source for online postings is TFAO's American
Use of the indexes and search capabilities within TFAO's
web site plus broader Internet search through search engines such as Google
will eliminate essays already published online. All essays will further
Resource Library's goal of:
- ...building an interconnected body of knowledge including
the relationships of American artists to their teachers in foreign nations
and America, the history of American art centers, schools, ateliers and
museums, the evolution of methods and styles of artistic expression, and
changing cultural emphases over time within its field of interest.
All essays must contain a minimum of 600 words covering
the topic of the submission, excluding "boilerplate" text describing
the source's address, hours of operation, fees, etc. Acknowledgments, forewords,
indexes, checklists and image captions are not included as approved texts.
Images are excluded. There is no upper limit on word count.
Requirements for independent contractor
- Appreciation of the value of education in American art
and the desire to assist a non-profit organization in providing that education
free to the public.
- Access to a body of exhibition catalogues relating to
American representational art.
- Current staff members of an art museum who seek projects
using their private time.
- Former staff members of an art museum or long-term docents.
- Extensive written and verbal public interaction experience
including substantial experience in conversing with museum staff including
curators and directors.
- Proficiency with computers and access to necessary equipment
including a computer connected to the Internet, a document scanner, OCR
software and Microsoft Word.
- Students should not apply as they do not have sufficient
Nature of the business relationship
- TFAO will enter into an independent contractor relationship
through a written agreement with an individual,
business or corporation to perform specified services. TFAO will have the
right to control or direct only the result of the work done by the independent
contractor, and not the means and methods of accomplishing the result.
The contractor will not be considered an employee. No taxes will be withheld
from payments made by TFAO to the contractor. The contractor will be responsible
for all state and federal taxes due in connection with an engagement.
- TFAO may be required to file information returns to report
certain types of payments made to independent contractors during the year
including Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, to report payments of $600
or more to persons not treated as employees (e.g. independent contractors)
for services performed.
- In lieu of a business relationship
TFAO will entertain offers of volunteer service.
Contractor's workplace, tools and preparation
- Independent contractor will provide his or her own workplace
for an engagement and will provide for the necessary equipment and software.
In addition, contractor will become familiar with TFAO's About
TFAO and Author Study and Index, plus
Resource Library's Services to institutions,
Scholarly text from private sources, and
Content presentation guidelines, It's good
to know -- if asked about viewership -- that TFAO's website is viewed by
millions of people each year and is the most viewed website in the world
devoted to American art. Sometimes it pleases copyright holders to know
that many new people will be exposed to their texts and that TFAO will
enable them to be more widely known. There are statistics at <http://tfaoi.org/aa/5aa/5aa49a.htm>.
1. Independent contractor
locates a body of exhibition catalogues relating to American
representational art. It is preferable that the contractor has access
to 20 or more promising essays from the catalogues.
2. Independent contractor and TFAO agree upon screening
criteria for the collection. Usually the flow of screening will be as follows:
a. Independent contractor studies the collection to identify
- are written about American
- have essays with a word count exceeding 600 words.
- have copyrights for essays prior to 1992 to reduce conflicts
with the American Art Review Study Project.
- will withstand the scanning process so that damage is
not done to the books.
- are preferably out of print (A call to the publisher
or visit to the publisher's web site will confirm status. Publishers are
more likely to cooperate if books are out of print)
- have compatibility of the page sizes, layouts, fonts,
page and text colors with the contractor's scanning equipment.
b. Independent contractor emails to TFAO information on
at least 10 promising essays within the identified books. Information for
each essay to include:
- name of book.
- publication date of book
- title of each essay of interest in the book plus its
- copyright date of each essay (prior to 1992)
- copyright owner of each essay
- approximate word count of each essay
c. TFAO receives the above information from the independent
contractor and then reviews the information to see if the essays fill in
online knowledge gaps. TFAO may eliminate some texts for further consideration
- author is copyright holder and subject to an active engagement
for the American Art Review Study Project.
- institution organizing the exhibition catalogue is subject
to an Institutional Sources Study Project.
- the publisher is in the process of publishing books online with search capability
- a Google Book Search,
on the publisher's name (e.g., inpublisher:"Hudson Hills") and
limiting the search to Limited Preview and full view books, indicates that
the publisher is participating in the Google
Books Partner Program offering either Limited Previews or full book
views. For instance a March 24, 2008 publisher search in Google Books for
Chazen Museum of Art yielded 190 titles
with almost all of the books featuring "Limited Preview."
- there is severe doubt of copyright holder cooperation.
- review of identified authors in the Author
Index determines that a related essay is already published online in FindArticles from The Art Bulletin,
Art Business News, Arts & Activities, ArtForum, Art Journal, or
- essay was previously published in TFAO's Resource Library through study of the Author Index and the Art
Museum, Gallery and Art Center Index
- either Internet search, Resource Library search, or Distinguished
Artists search indicates adequate online scholarship on the subject,
such as a web site for an author that is the subject of a book.
3. Both parties enter into an agreement
specifying texts for inclusion.
- Parties may agree at a later date to pursue other texts
owned by the copyright holder, leading to an Institutional
Sources Study Project. TFAO's recent experience is that approximately
1/2 of texts worked on will result in permissions granted. The most likely
reason for permissions not obtained is inability to find the owner of the
text or in the case of an institutional owner a person with authority to
grant permissions. Less likely reasons are apathy or reluctance on the
part of the owner in having the text reprinted. TFAO will not compensate
contractor in any amount for work involved with texts that do not yield
approval emails directly to TFAO from the copyright owners plus complete
presentation packages. The risk that work done on a text will not lead
to a complete presentation package and subsequent payment by TFAO rests
solely with the contractor.
4. TFAO creates an online status
sheet for each named author and the author's essay. This worksheet contains
key information about the approval status and processing for a text including
excerpts from related emails. Copyright holder approvals and related correspondence
are recorded online on the status sheet in an abbreviated fashion. Where
appropriate, TFAO removes full email addresses and private phone numbers
out of respect of the privacy of correspondents. Also, TFAO strives to remove
from online-recorded correspondence any language of a personal or opinionated
5. Independent contractor secures permission with copyright
owners for TFAO to reprint texts.
- Before seeking approvals of copyright owners, the contractor
should become familiar with TFAO's page on Acquisition
and deselection of content for the TFAO-dl.
This page provides reassurance to copyright owners through TFAO's promises
regarding reprinting of texts. TFAO's sample letters
may be of benefit to the contractor in phrasing emails or conversation
with copyright owners.
- Email letters should always be preceded by phone conversations
confirming the ownership of texts.
- If, during a conversation with a copyright holder, the
text's owner wishes to review the digitized and proofread texts produced
by the contractor before giving final approval for reprinting, the contractor
will email the text as a .doc file to the owner.
- TFAO will not send paper copies of online-printed texts
to owners. Links will be sent by TFAO as a courtesy when requested.
- TFAO has found that referrals to the rights and reproductions
departments of museums are almost always errors on the part of the museum.
If copyright owners challenge the legitimacy of the contractor's relationship
with TFAO they may call TFAO or send an email to TFAO's director for verification.
TFAO will be pleased to provide an email letter of introduction for the
benefit of the contractor.
6. Independent contractor arranges for copyright owners
to send permissions emails directly to TFAO (with CCs to the contractor)
indicating their approvals for reprinting online in Resource Library.
The final approval emails from the copyright owners are understood to
be for one time publication in Resource Library,
7. Independent contractor conducts OCR, proofreading and
formatting in accordance with Content presentation
guidelines to 99.995% accuracy. Near-perfect proofreading accuracy is
required to keep the trust of the authors, students and teachers who rely
on TFAO's standards. OCR scanning, proofreading and formatting could be
conducted through a separate contract by another party if agreed to by TFAO
and contractor, but it is preferred to keep the work unified. The OCR, proofreading
and formatting steps should be done after permission is secured from
copyright owners for TFAO to reprint texts. The contractor will need to
make at least two trips to the library: the first trip to identify books
that meet agreed upon initial screening criteria, and the second trip to
photocopy the pages of the texts that will be scanned.
- TFAO has found over the years that it is helpful to separate
proofreading tasks to speed along the process and reduce errors. If a text
has footnotes, TFAO suggests first reformatting all of the footnote numbers
sprinkled through the essay at the same time (e.g. , , etc.). This
allows the contractor to better keep track of the numerical sequence while
proofreading and better insures that footnote numbers in the text are not
passed over. The second useful step is to create all paragraph breaks,
if needed, including indented paragraphs for long quotes. After that, all
other proofreading may be done paragraph by paragraph, attending to items
such as multiple periods within quotes (e.g. matter....I said), fixing
hyphens (e.g. "plants-and" into double hyphens "plants --
and"), and replacing all en dashes into single plain hyphens, etc.
Also hyphenated words at the end of lines in the original text are to be
joined back together in the new .doc file. Examples: worth-while, seper-ated.
8. Independent contractor emails to TFAO a complete presentation
package for each fully processed text to include:
- a. forwarded email letter of the contractor's CC copy
of the permission from the copyright owner previously sent to TFAO
- b. proofread and formatted text in .doc format according
to Content presentation guidelines.
- c. "about the author" text. For author information
the contractor provides either what the text's owner sends to the contractor
or uses basic facts from the catalog biography such as: "At
the time of writing of the above article [author name] was the [job title]
at the [name of employer]."
- d. Resource Library page header for the article
indicating contact information for comments or for securing reprints and
the "Editor's note" for the bottom of the page which includes
acknowledgements for assistance in gaining permissions and other information.
- For the page header TFAO first states the date of permission
and the owner of the text. TFAO always wants the reader to have a means
of reaching the text owner directly (valid at time of publication as TFAO
does not update owner info later on) -- without contacting TFAO. TFAO does
not want readers contacting it (usually years later) with the intent of
TFAO trying to figure out how to route them to the source. TFAO only provides
author/owner's personal information such as email addresses and phone numbers
if they expressly want TFAO to do so. Otherwise, regarding author
owners, TFAO publishes only the employer's postal address, or web site
and/or phone number. Sometimes TFAO publishes information on the last known
place of employment as the last resort. Here is a page header example:
- Editor's note: The following text was reprinted in Resource Library
on [month, day, year] with the permission of [name of copyright holder].
If you have questions or comments regarding the text, or wish to obtain
a copy of the catalogue from which the text was excerpted, please contact
[name of copyright holder] directly through this [phone number] and [address]:
- [phone number]
- [website or other address]
9. TFAO will add gray color to the text at its office.
- For the "Editor's note" TFAO repeats part of
the header regarding the permission. Then the date of permission is added.
If applicable, reference is then made to an exhibition related to the article.
Lastly, TFAO acknowledges who helped gain the permission. If the article
was published in whole earlier in a catalogue or brochure, this first instances
of publication is noted. Here is an "Editor's note" example:
- Resource Library editor's note:
- The above text was reprinted in Resource Library on [month,
day, year] with permission of [name of copyright holder], which was granted
to TFAO on [month, day, year]. [author's name]'s article pertains to [name
and dates of exhibition if applicable].
- Resource Library wishes to extend appreciation to [name of contractor
plus any other persons who helped gain permission] for [her/his/their]
help concerning permission for reprinting the above text.
10. TFAO will make payment to the independent contractor
for an agreed upon number of complete presentation packages after those
packages are verified by TFAO to be of satisfactory quality. No payment
will be made for partially completed presentation packages.
Compensation for a text from a catalogue
with one fully processed essay
- TFAO estimates that an independent contractor may spend
these amounts of time for baseline components. Elements include:
- 1. identification of authors, essay titles, copyright
owner(s): .25 hours per catalogue
- 2. permissions process: .5 hours per catalogue for included
- 3. preparation of presentation package for TFAO: .5 hours
per catalogue for included texts
- total = 1.25 hours per article @ hourly equivalent rate
- TFAO pays a fixed amount of $38 for this component of
a complete presentation package. The actual time spent by an independent
contractor may be more or less than the above estimated amount.
OCR scanning, proofreading and formatting charge:
- For OCR scanning TFAO will pay 50 cents per page and
for proofreading and formatting 80 cents per 1,000 characters.
- Spaces between words and characters are
not counted as characters.
- The total charge for a 10,600 character (about 2,000
words) text, for example, would be:
- 50 cents x 8 pages = $4.00
- 80 cents per 1,000 characters x 10.6 = $8.48
- total OCR scanning, proofreading and formatting = $12.48
- $12.48 + $38 baseline charge = $50.48
If books are from a private collection and cannot be borrowed
from the collection by the contractor for scanning at the contractor's office,
TFAO will also reimburse the contractor for out of pocket photocopying costs
for texts previously approved by copyright holders for republishing by TFAO.
This will allow for scanning of such photocopies taken to the contractor's
Compensation for additional texts from
Sometimes a catalogue may have more than one essay. If
an independent contractor and TFAO agree that the contractor may pursue
permissions for republishing specified essays in a catalogue beyond one
catalogue essay, then payment at the rate of $20 is made to the contractor
for each of the additional catalogue essays plus the OCR scanning, proofreading
and formatting charge described above is also paid to the contractor.
Return to Special Projects
*Tag for expired US copyright of object
Artists catalogue provides online
access to biographical information for artists associated with this state.
Also, Search Resource Library for online articles and
essays concerning both individual artists associated with this state's history
and the history of art centers and museums in this state. Resource Library
articles and essays devoted to individual artists and institutions are not
listed on this page.
Links to sources of information outside
of our web site are provided only as referrals for your further consideration.
Please use due diligence in judging the quality of information contained
in these and all other web sites. Information from linked sources may be
inaccurate or out of date. TFAO neither recommends or endorses these referenced
organizations. Although TFAO includes links to other web sites, it takes
no responsibility for the content or information contained on those other
sites, nor exerts any editorial or other control over them. For more information
on evaluating web pages see TFAO's General
Resources section in Online
Resources for Collectors and Students of Art History.
Search Resource Library
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